ARP

Stands for Address Resolution Protocol, which is used to find a physical address that belongs to an IP address.

The normal procedure is to send an ARP request over the network and the machine that has the requested IP will answer with an ARP reply. This procedure then associates a physical machine with an IP address. Attackers can abuse this protocol by ARP spoofing, broadcasting an IP address so that the traffic meant for that IP address can be intercepted by the attacker.

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